wgbow — Creates a tone similar to a bowed string.


Audio output is a tone similar to a bowed string, using a physical model developed from Perry Cook, but re-coded for Csound.


ares wgbow kamp, kfreq, kpres, krat, kvibf, kvamp, ifn [, iminfreq]


ifn -- table of shape of vibrato, usually a sine table, created by a function

iminfreq (optional) -- lowest frequency at which the instrument will play. If it is omitted it is taken to be the same as the initial kfreq. If iminfreq is negative, initialization will be skipped.


A note is played on a string-like instrument, with the arguments as below.

kamp -- amplitude of note.

kfreq -- frequency of note played.

kpres -- a parameter controlling the pressure of the bow on the string. Values should be about 3. The useful range is approximately 1 to 5.

krat -- the position of the bow along the string. Usual playing is about 0.127236. The suggested range is 0.025 to 0.23.

kvibf -- frequency of vibrato in Hertz. Suggested range is 0 to 12

kvamp -- amplitude of the vibrato


Here is an example of the wgbow opcode. It uses the file wgbow.csd.

Example 889. Example of the wgbow opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in    No messages
-odac           -iadc     -d     ;;;RT audio I/O
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o wgbow.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

; Initialize the global variables.
sr = 44100
kr = 4410
ksmps = 10
nchnls = 1

; Instrument #1.
instr 1
  kamp = 31129.60
  kfreq = 440
  kpres = 3.0
  krat = 0.127236
  kvibf = 6.12723
  ifn = 1

  ; Create an amplitude envelope for the vibrato.
  kv linseg 0, 0.5, 0, 1, 1, p3-0.5, 1
  kvamp = kv * 0.01

  a1 wgbow kamp, kfreq, kpres, krat, kvibf, kvamp, ifn
  out a1


; Table #1, a sine wave.
f 1 0 128 10 1

; Play Instrument #1 for two seconds.
i 1 0 2



Author: John ffitch (after Perry Cook)
University of Bath, Codemist Ltd.
Bath, UK

New in Csound version 3.47