<<

<< — Bitshift left operator.

Description

The bitshift operators shift the bits to the left or to the right the number of bits given.

The priority of these operators is less binding that the arithmetic ones, but more binding that the comparisons.

Parentheses may be used as above to force particular groupings.

Syntax

a << b  (bitshift left)

where the arguments a and b may be further expressions.

Examples

Here is an example of the bitshift left operator. It uses the file bitshift.csd.

Example 30. Example of the bitshift left operator.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

<CsoundSynthesizer>
<CsOptions>
; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in
;-odac           -iadc    ;;;RT audio I/O
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
-o bitshift.wav -W --nosound ;;; for file output any platform 
</CsOptions>
<CsInstruments>

sr = 44100
ksmps = 128
nchnls = 2

instr 1 ;bit shift right
ival = p4>>p5
printf_i "%i>>%i = %i\n", 1, p4, p5, ival
endin

instr 2 ;bit shift left
ival = p4<<p5
printf_i "%i<<%i = %i\n", 1, p4, p5, ival
endin

</CsInstruments>
<CsScore>
i 1   0   0.1  2   1
i 1   +    .   3   1
i 1   +    .   7   2
i 1   +    .   16   1
i 1   +    .   16   2
i 1   +    .   16   3

i 2   5    0.1 1   1
i 2   +    .   1   2
i 2   +    .   1   3
i 2   +    .   1   4
i 2   +    .   2   1
i 2   +    .   2   2
i 2   +    .   2   3
i 2   +    .   3   2
e
</CsScore>
</CsoundSynthesizer>


The example above will produce the following output:

2>>1 = 1
B  0.000 ..  0.100 T  0.100 TT  0.100 M:      0.0      0.0
3>>1 = 1
B  0.100 ..  0.200 T  0.200 TT  0.200 M:      0.0      0.0
7>>2 = 1
B  0.200 ..  0.300 T  0.300 TT  0.300 M:      0.0      0.0
16>>1 = 8
B  0.300 ..  0.400 T  0.400 TT  0.400 M:      0.0      0.0
16>>2 = 4
B  0.400 ..  0.500 T  0.500 TT  0.500 M:      0.0      0.0
16>>3 = 2
B  0.500 ..  5.000 T  5.000 TT  5.000 M:      0.0      0.0
new alloc for instr 2:
1<<1 = 2
B  5.000 ..  5.100 T  5.100 TT  5.100 M:      0.0      0.0
1<<2 = 4
B  5.100 ..  5.200 T  5.200 TT  5.200 M:      0.0      0.0
1<<3 = 8
B  5.200 ..  5.300 T  5.300 TT  5.300 M:      0.0      0.0
1<<4 = 16
B  5.300 ..  5.400 T  5.400 TT  5.400 M:      0.0      0.0
2<<1 = 4
B  5.400 ..  5.500 T  5.500 TT  5.500 M:      0.0      0.0
2<<2 = 8
B  5.500 ..  5.600 T  5.600 TT  5.600 M:      0.0      0.0
2<<3 = 16
B  5.600 ..  5.700 T  5.700 TT  5.700 M:      0.0      0.0
3<<2 = 12

See Also

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