midipitchbend — Gets a MIDI pitchbend value.


midipitchbend is designed to simplify writing instruments that can be used interchangeably for either score or MIDI input, and to make it easier to adapt instruments originally written for score input to work with MIDI input.

In general, it should be possible to write instrument definitions that work identically with both scores and MIDI, including both MIDI files and real-time MIDI input, without using any conditional statements, and that take full advantage of MIDI voice messages.

Note that correlating Csound instruments with MIDI channel numbers is done using the massign opcode for real-time performance,. For file-driven performance, instrument numbers default to MIDI channel number + 1, but the defaults are overridden by any MIDI program change messages in the file.


midipitchbend xpitchbend [, ilow] [, ihigh]


ilow (optional) -- optional low value after rescaling, defaults to 0.

ihigh (optional) -- optional high value after rescaling, defaults to 127.


xpitchbend -- returns the MIDI pitch bend during MIDI activation, remains unchanged otherwise.

If the instrument was activated by MIDI input, the opcode overwrites the value of xpitchbend with the corresponding value from MIDI input. If the instrument was NOT activated by MIDI input, the value of xpitchbend remains unchanged.

This enables score p-fields to receive MIDI input data during MIDI activation, and score values otherwise.

[Note] Adapting a score-activated Csound instrument.

See the MIDI interop opcodes section for details on adapting score driven instruments for MIDI or vice-versa.


Here is an example of the midipitchbend opcode. It uses the file midipitchbend.csd.

Example 436. Example of the midipitchbend opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in   No messages  MIDI in
-odac           -iadc     -d         -M0  ;;;RT audio I/O with MIDI in
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o midipitchbend.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

; Initialize the global variables.
sr = 44100
kr = 4410
ksmps = 10
nchnls = 1

; Instrument #1.
instr 1
  kpb init 0

  midipitchbend kpb

  ; Display the pitch-bend value when it changes.
  printk2 kpb


; Play Instrument #1 for ten seconds.
i 1 0 10


Its output should include lines like:

 i1     0.12695
 i1     0.00000
 i1    -0.01562

See Also

midichannelaftertouch, midicontrolchange, mididefault, midinoteoff, midinoteoncps, midinoteonkey, midinoteonoct, midinoteonpch, midipolyaftertouch, midiprogramchange


Author: Michael Gogins

Example written by Kevin Conder.

New in version 4.20