+

+ — Addition operator

Description

Arithmetic operators perform operations of change-sign (negate), don't-change-sign, logical AND logical OR, add, subtract, multiply and divide. Note that a value or an expression may fall between two of these operators, either of which could take it as its left or right argument, as in


a + b * c.
      

In such cases three rules apply:

1. * and / bind to their neighbors more strongly than + and −. Thus the above expression is taken as

  
a + (b * c)
      

with * taking b and c and then + taking a and b * c.

2. + and bind more strongly than &&, which in turn is stronger than ||:

  
a && b - c || d
      

is taken as

  
(a && (b - c)) || d
      

3. When both operators bind equally strongly, the operations are done left to right:

  
a - b - c
      

is taken as

  
(a - b) - c
      

Parentheses may be used as above to force particular groupings.

Syntax

+a  (no rate restriction)
a + b  (no rate restriction)

where the arguments a and b may be further expressions.

Examples

Here is an example of the + operator. It uses the file adds.csd.

Example 23. Example of the + operator.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

<CsoundSynthesizer>
<CsOptions>
; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
-odac     ;;;RT audio out
;-iadc    ;;;uncomment -iadc if RT audio input is needed too
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o adds.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform
</CsOptions>
<CsInstruments>

sr = 44100
ksmps = 32
nchnls = 2
0dbfs = 1

instr 1
; add unipolar square to oscil
kamp = p4
kcps = 1
itype = 3

klfo	lfo kamp, kcps, itype
printk2	klfo
asig	oscil 0.7, 440+klfo, 1
	outs asig, asig

endin


</CsInstruments>
<CsScore>
;sine wave.
f 1 0 32768 10 1

i 1 0 2 1	;adds 1 Hz to frequency
i 1 + 2 10	;adds 10 Hz to frequency
i 1 + 2 220	;adds 220 Hz to frequency

e

</CsScore>
</CsoundSynthesizer>


See Also

-, &&, ||, *, /, ^, %