+ — Addition operator

Arithmetic operators perform operations of change-sign (negate), don't-change-sign, logical AND logical OR, add, subtract, multiply and divide. Note that a value or an expression may fall between two of these operators, either of which could take it as its left or right argument, as in

a + b * c.

In such cases three rules apply:

1. * and */* bind to their neighbors more strongly than + and −. Thus the above expression is taken as

a + (b * c)

with * taking b and c and then + taking a and b * c.

2. *+* and *−* bind more strongly than &&, which in turn is stronger than ||:

a && b - c || d

is taken as

(a && (b - c)) || d

3. When both operators bind equally strongly, the operations are done left to right:

a - b - c

is taken as

(a - b) - c

Parentheses may be used as above to force particular groupings.

**+**a (no rate restriction)

`a `**+** b (no rate restriction)

where the arguments *a* and *b* may be further expressions.

Here is an example of the + operator. It uses the file *adds.csd*.

**Example 23. Example of the + operator.**

See the sections *Real-time Audio* and *Command Line Flags* for more information on using command line flags.

<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> ; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform -odac ;;;RT audio out ;-iadc ;;;uncomment -iadc if RT audio input is needed too ; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below: ; -o adds.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> sr = 44100 ksmps = 32 nchnls = 2 0dbfs = 1 instr 1 ; add unipolar square to oscil kamp = p4 kcps = 1 itype = 3 klfo lfo kamp, kcps, itype printk2 klfo asig oscil 0.7, 440+klfo, 1 outs asig, asig endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> ;sine wave. f 1 0 32768 10 1 i 1 0 2 1 ;adds 1 Hz to frequency i 1 + 2 10 ;adds 10 Hz to frequency i 1 + 2 220 ;adds 220 Hz to frequency e </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>