Eastman Computer Music Center (ECMC)
CMP 421 : Advanced Computer Music Techniques

Course syllabus for

semester 1, Autumn 2014

Staff email addresses and phone numbers:
Allan Schindleraschindler AT esm.rochester.edu274 1575
Clay Mettens mettensmusic AT gmail.com
Zach Sheets zachsheets91 AT gmail.com
Nikolas Jeleniauskas nikolas.jeleniauskas AT gmail.com
Michael Fraziermichaelfraziermusic@ AT mail.com
James Garber centurylife AT gmail.com
Jason Buchananjasontbuchanan AT gmail.com
Studio phone in room 53274 1578

(In all of the email addresses above, delete the word "AT" and the surrounding spaces, and substitute the @ symbol.)

Some "emeritus" staff members who continue to provide valuable expertise and assistance for ECMC concerts and activities, and whom you may get to know:
Matt Barbour, Steven Rice and Paul Coleman

Principal online and hardcopy documents (available in rooms 52 and 53) for this semester's work:
(Hardcopy and online web documents that you likely will need to access frequently for this semester's assignments are show below in in bold font)
  1. Overview of studio resources:
  2. Csound:
  3. Pure Data :
    • Farnell, Andy, Designing Sound : examines sound design and sound transformation using Pd patches as models; includes tutorial introduction to Pd which includes a tutorial introduction to Pd. Code examples in the book are available at http://aspress.co.uk/sd/index.php
    • Pd binder : Hardcopy information on running the Pd application, available in room 52.
    • The main Pd documentation page, available at http://puredata.info/docs/ contains links to Pd documentation sites and pages.

  4. PVC: (covered second semester) :
  5. Super Collider 3 (covered second semester) :
  6. Additional books on computer music resources available for your use in room 53:
    • Aikin, Jim, Csound Power : introductory overview of Csound resources.
    • Boulanger, Richard, The Csound Book : a compendium of chapters by various authors that provides more in-depth information on Csound coding and aspects of digital signal processing
    • Boulanger, Richard and Lazzarini, Victor, editors, The Audio Programming Book : examines concepts of programming digital audio
    • Cope, David, Virtual Music : studies of artificial intelligence and algorithmic procedures applied to music composition
    • Cottle, David: Computer Music with examples in SuperCollider 3
    • Eargle, John, The Microphone Book : a scholarly and authoritative compendium of information on microphones and how to use them
    • Huber, David and Williams, Philip, Professional Microphone Techniques : despite a sometimes annoyingly breezy writing style this book contains much helpful information on microphones and tips on miking particular instruments and voices
    • Loy, Gareth, Musimathics, volume 1 : introduction to the physics and mathematics of music and digital audio
    • Roads, Curtis, editor, The Computer Music Tutorial : excellent (though aging) general purpose introduction to computer music techniques and resources
    • Roads, Curtis, Microsound : a comprehensive study of granular synthesis techniques
    • Smith, Steven, Digital Signal Processing : recommended supplemental text for information on the mathematics of signal processing
    • Winkler, Todd, Composing Interactive Music : resources and ideas for interaction between live performances and computer programs; most of the examples employ the MAX programming language, but much of the information is equally pertinent to Pd
None of these books, which are intended for use at any time by all
ECMC users, should ever leave the studios.

Supplies:
Supplies, including CDR and CD-RW discs, DVD discs in -r,+r, -rw and +rw formats and jewelcases can be purchased at any time during the year. Please check the price list posted outside room 53, pay the cashier and bring your receipt to class or to a staff member.


COURSE GRADING: Your semester grade will be based on the following four evaluations of your work in the studio:

  1. Week 8 Oct. 21 TEST 1 : 1/4 of final grade: Evaluation of examples of your work with
    • recording acoustic sound sources into soundfiles; and
    • score11 or nGen and Csound
  2. Week 13, Nov. 25 TEST 2 : 1/4 of final grade: Evaluation of examples of your work with the following applications:
    • Pd
    • some combination of jack clients (e.g. jack-rack, FreqTweak and JAMin)
    • the ambisonic processing program vspace
  3. A semester compositional project. 40 % of your final grade. This project, due on Sunday, December 14 , is a 2-5 minute composition, stereo, quad or eight channel, recorded onto an audio compact disc or else, for realtime and multichannel works, performed from one of the ECMC laptop computer systems. The project will be evaluated both on musical and on technical quality.
  4. Class participation: 10 % of final grade.

Class concert at the end of the semester:

I have scheduled a concert of semester projects realized in the studios this term for Monday, December 15 in room 120.

Weekly Assignments for semester 1, fall 2014:

[All optional assignments -- suggested but not required -- are printed below in brackets and in small type.]


Week 1, Sept. 2, 4

Principal topics: (1) Course and lab structure and objectives; (2) Introduction to the ECMC computer network and audio workstations; (3) the Linux Xfce desktop working environment; (4) introduction to Unix; some basic Unix commands; (5) simple text editors: Gedit and nedit (6) online help and system documentation (7) the ECMC web site; (8) finding, listing and playing sflib soundfiles; (9) the Audacity soundfile editor and DSP plugins; (10) shell commands to list and play your own soundfiles;

Reading assignment:
(This week and next you will be doing a lot of reading for this course. There is a lot of basic information to absorb before you can make some music in here. Be assured that, yes, eventually you will put aside all of these manuals and create some music.)
  1. ECMC Users' Guide:
    • All of Section 1 (pages I:1 to I:18)
    • Sections 2.0 through 2.6. (pages II:1 to the top of page II:15)
    • Sections 4.0 through 4.5 (pages IV:1 to the middle of IV:11)
  2. [ Recommended : man pages for findsflib and findsnd ]
Labs and individual studio work:
    Basic system orientation :
  1. Learn to negociate your way around the Xfce desktop environment on madking, so that you can quickly locate and open frequently used applications and "places" (folders, subfolders and files, such as sflib soundfiles and your home Unix and soundfile directories). Reset your password.
  2. Create a few scratch Unix files and learn how to use the following Unix shell commands: date, cal, who, ls and ls -l, cat, more, less
  3. Using the Firefox or Chrome (or Opera) web browser, browse through the ECMC web page at http://www.ecmc.rochester.edu. In particular, take a look at the Documentation pages
  4. With the ecmchelp utility, take a look at a few of the ECMC help files, including hertz, pitchratios and sflib.
  5. Practice creating and editing ascii text files with the gedit or nedit text editor.

    Audio programs and applications :
  6. Over the next few weeks play through many of the 44.1k and 96k soundfiles in the sflib and sflib96 directories, using the playsflib (psfl) command from a shell window. Use the command lsflib (lsfl) to list the directories and soundfiles on the sflib disk, and the command sflibinfo (sfli) to display their durations and other header information. By the end of this month you should be familiar with many of the samples available within the sflib collection.
  7. Learn how to make simple soundfile edits (cut, copy, paste, fade-in, fade-out, changes amplitude level) and perform signal modifications with Audacity, and to save these edited soundfiles or mixes to your own snd directory.
  8. Learn how to use the following commands from a shell window to access your soundfiles: lsf, sfinfo (si), play

Week 2, Sept. 9, 11 :

Principal topics: (1) digital audio signals: sampling rates and bit depths; (2) pre-amplifying acoustic signals in room 52: using the studio Audio Technica mic and the Joe Meek preamp in room 52; (3) jack, qjackctl and meterbridge; (4) qarecord (and arecord); (5) recording analog signals into soundfiles both with jack running and without jack (5) three additional soundfile editors: rezound, sweep and mhWaveEdit, (6) printing files
Reading assignment:
ECMC Users' Guide:
  • Sections 2.7 (Printing, page II:15) through 2.8 (Text editors, page II:16)
  • All of Sections 3 (pages III:1 through 3.15)
  • Section 4.9 (Jack) page IV:16 through section 4.9.3 (A simple jack patch for recording microphone signals), pages IV:15 through IV:19
Labs and individual studio work:
  1. Practice pre-amplifying mic signals with the Joe Meek pre-amp. While practicing recording microphone signals into soundfiles always try to recording musically interesting signals ( rather than, say, counting from one to ten or making bad animal sound simulations with your voice). You should accumulate some musically useful soundfiles that you can use as source material in your compositional work in this course.
  2. Learn how to start and stop jack with qjackctl, and to connect jack clients such as meterbridge, qarecord and rezound or >mhWaveEdit.
  3. Practice recording mic signals into soundfiles with jack clients and without jack.
  4. Practice editing the soundfiles you have recorded with mhWaveEdit or rezound or sweep. Apply some simple effects processing to some of your soundfiles using the LADSPA plugins available in mhWaveEdit, rezound, sweep and Audacity.
Assignment for Test 1, due week 8, October 21 :
During Test 1 (see Week 8 below) we will play three of the soundfiles you have recorded, either in the studios or on remote locations with the Sony DMP-50 recorder (covered next week).
  1. One of these soundfiles should be of a vocal source.
  2. At least one of your soundfiles must be of a non-vocal concrète or instrumental sound source.
  3. The third soundfile can be of any sound source, but you should also add to it some DSP effects processing.

Week 3, Sept. 16, 18 :

Principal topics: (1) some ECMC soundfile utilities; (2) remote recording with the Sony DMP-50 digital recorder; (3) introduction to the vim text editor; (4) introduction to score11
Reading assignment:
  1. ECMC Users' Guide: :
  2. Sections 4.6 (page IV:11) through 4.8 (IV:15)
  3. the Sony DMP-50 handout
  4. Score11 manual : sections 1.1 up to 3.1.9 (pages 1 through 18)
Labs and individual studio work:
  1. Practice using the following soundfile utility programs: cpsf, mvsf, rmsf, sfpeak, bounce, pitchshift, sfnorm
  2. Practice creating input files to score11 and then running these files through score11 and looking at the resulting sout output files to see if you get what you expect. Spend most of your individual studio time this week on score11.
  3. Try using vim to create and edit ascii files. (You may not like it, at least at first, but most advanced ECMC users prefer vim to nedit or gedit.)
    You might find the tutorial at http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialAdvanced_vi.html to be helpful.
  4. Practice recording sounds in the studio with the Sony DMP-50 recorder and transfering these recordings from the DMP-50 to madking. For the rest of the year the DMP-50 will be available to you for short periods on a sign out basis for remote recordings on days when it is not needed for ECMC functions.

Week 4, Sept. 23, 25:

Principal topics: (1) additional editing features of vim ; (2) playing and ripping audio compact discs; (3) score11 (concluded); (4) the Eastman Csound Library; Library instruments marimba and bsn; (5) creating soundfiles with Csound and running Csound in real time;
Reading assignment:
  1. ECMC Users' Guide Users' Guide:
    • Section 8.0 (pages VIII:1 through 8.2 (page VII:10)
    • Section 5.0 through 5.2 (pages V:1 through to the top of V:6)
    • Section 5.6, The ECMC CD/DAT sample library, pages V:10 - V:11
  2. Eastman Csound Library (available in rooms 52 & 53): Documentation on Library instrument algorithms marimba (pages 43-46), and bsn
  3. Online man pages for mko and csoundplay
  4. Browse through the ECMC Audio CD/DAT Library binder, and/or perhaps explore some online sound sources, such as Freesound (www.freesound.org) or EastWest SoundsOnline (www.soundsonline.com).
Labs and individual studio work:
  1. Create some scores for Eastman Csound Library algorithms marimba and bsn and compile these into soundfiles. Also try compiling some scores into realtime audio with the command csoundplay (csp). While creating scores for these two instrument algorithms, try out some of the additional and more advanced features of score11 discussed in class
  2. Practice playing audio compact discs and ripping complete short tracks and excerpts from longer tracks into soundfiles. The ECMC Library cds of sampled sounds are good sources for this practice.

Week 5, Sept. 30, Oct. 2 :

Principal topics: (1) the nGen Csound score preprocessor; (2) burning audio and data CDs and data DVDs with K3b (3) backing up files to flash and portable USB drives; (4) using Eastman Csound Library "sampler" algorithms samp and tsamp; (5) creating and using Csound wavetable function definitions.
Reading assignment:
  1. Take a look at the nGen manual, either online at http://mikelkuehn.com/ngen/man2/ngenman.htm or in the hard copy printout in the Linux soound room.
  2. ECMC Users' Guide:
    • Sections 5.3 (DVD discs) and 5.4 (Burning Audio and data CDs) (pages V:6 to V:9)
    • Section 5.7 (flash drives), pages V:11 through V:14
    • Sections 8.5 ( The samp and tsamp Library algorithms) and 8.6 (Soundfile and keymap functions) (pages VIII:16 to the top of VIII:20)
  3. Eastman Csound Library: documentation on algorithms samp and tsamp, pages 54-63
  4. [Suggested: the man page for mksffuncs ]
Labs and individual studio work:
  1. Try out nGen and see if it might be more useful to you than score11 (especially if you will be working with Csound on a Mac or Windows system)
  2. Practice using ECMC Csound Library instruments tsamp and samp
  3. Practice creating Csound function definitions of your own soundfiles and for sflib soundsfile with mksffuncs, and using these function definitions within score11 input files for tsamp and samp
  4. Learn how to burn both audio and data CDs as well as data DVDs with K3b, and how to backup files to a flash drive

For the rest of the year, you will be responsible for backing up all of your important soundfiles and Unix files to data cds, dvds or, more quickly and easily, to flash drives. Do this frequently, so that in the event that a system disaster wipes out the sound disk on madking, or (more likely) in case you inadvertently delete one or more important soundfiles or Unix files, or should they become corrupted, you can restore your lost file(s) and get right back to work.

Assignment for Test 1, due October 22 :
During the first test of this semester (see Week 8 below) we will look at 3 or 4 of your best score11 or nGen examples, play the resulting soundfiles, and make a few temporary edits (changes to) your score11 files.

Week 6, Oct. 7, 9 :

Principal topics: (1) granular synthesis and the ECMC gran instrument algorithm; (3) review of jack; (4) introduction to the Pd application
A portion of class time will be devoted to individual appointments to discuss the Csound scores on which you are working, and your preparations for your graded test in two weeks.
Reading assignment:
  1. Eastman Csound Library : Documentation on Library algorithm gran (pages 26-42)
  2. ECMC Users' Guide: Section 4.10 (A Pd tutorial), pages IV:21 throug IV:24, the end of section 4)
  3. Farnell, Designing Sound, Chapter 9, pages 149-162
  4. [ The article Pd Documentation by Miller Puckette, contained in the Pd binder, available in the studio.]
Labs and individual studio work:
  1. Experiment with granular synthesis techniques using the gran algorithm
  2. Modify some example Pd patches and begin constructing some simple Pd patches based upon the models provided in class and in the Pd documentation

Week 7, Oct. 14, 16 :

No class on Tuesday (school holiday). Thursday class and labs will meet.
Principal topics: Building Pd patches, subpatches and abstractions. A portion of Thursday's class time will be devoted to individual appointments in preparation for next week's test.

Reading assignment: Farnell, Designing Sound, Chapter 10, up to Section 10.7 (Common Idioms), pages 165-179

Labs and individual studio work:
  1. Continue your work exploring and modifying tutorial Pd patches and construct some simple patches of your own.
  2. Since new topics have been coming at a rapid rate so far this semester, and class time is abbreviated this week, use some of your lab and individual studio time to
    • Review and solidify your understanding of the course material, techniques and audio applications covered thus far, and in particular of Csound and score11. Come to your lab with specific questions on audio applications and concepts that you still don't fully understand, and on problems you have encountered.
    • Explore in greater depth two or three applications presented so far that interest you. See if you can create some musical source material (either acoustic recordings or processing of soundfiles) that will be usable to you in your compositional project.
  3. Continue preparations for your first graded evaluation next week.

Week 8, Oct. 21, 23: TEST 1

No regular class or labs this week. Class time will be devoted to individual appointments for graded evaluations of:
  • Acoustic recording: Three 10-20 second soundfiles of acoustic sound sources you have recorded.
    (At least one of these recordings must be of a non-vocal sound source, and one should include effects processing. See week 2 assignment.)
  • Csound: Three or four score11 or nGen files, for two different Eastman Csound Library instrument algorithms, and the soundfiles created by these scores
Your recording and Csound soundfile examples will be evaluated on musical as well as technical quality.

After your test:
Reading assignment: Farnell, Designing Sound, Chapter 11, Pure Data Audio, pages 185-192


Week 9, Oct. 28, 30 :

****************************************************************************
Special events this week:
ECMC Concert, Monday October 27, 8:00 Hatch Recital Hall featuring music of Rand Steiger : http:rand.info/
Also on Monday October 27 : Composers' Symposium presentation by Rand Steiger; time and room TBA.
****************************************************************************
(1) A more in-depth examination of resources of Pd and a look at several Pd patches; (2) some jack client effects processors: jack-rack, FreqTweak and JAMin; (3) some utilities for converting soundfiles
Reading assignment:
  1. Farnell, Designing Sound, Chapter 12 pages 193-203 and Chapter 13 up to section 13.2, Periodic Functions, pages 205-211
  2. ECMC Users' Guide :
    • Sections 6.0 through 6.2 (pages VI:1 through the middle of VI:5)
    • section 4.9.4, An example JACK session, pages IV:19 to IV:21
  3. [ You may want to look at some of the example patches in the hardcopy Pd binder in addition to the control, audio, reference and ECMC examples available from the Help menu from within the application. ]
  4. Suggested online tutorials for Freq Tweak: http://freqtweak.sourceforge.net/ and for JAMin http://jamin.sourceforge.net/en/uibasics.html
Labs and individual studio work:
  1. Create some new patches to try out some additional resources of Pd, but also concentrate on perfecting one or two patches that work exactly as you wish
  2. Try out jack-rack, FreqTweak and JAMin.
  3. Practice converting various parameters of soundfiles (sampling rates, bit depths, number of channels, etc.)
Assignment for Test 2, due week 13, November 24 :
For your second graded evaluation, prepare
  1. One or two Pd patches
  2. One sound processing example that employs either jack-rack, FreqTweak or JAMin, or else a combination of these jack clients.
There will be four portions to this test. In addition to your Pd and jack examples, we will look at a soundfile mix example (see week 10 assignment) and an ambisonic mix example created with vspace (see week 11 assignment).

Week 10, Nov. 3, 5 :

Principal topics: (1) Pd (concluded); (2) survey of some mixing applications; (3) using Audacity for simple mixing; (4) the Ardour 2 DAW application; (5) discussion of semester project possibilities
Reading assignment:
  1. Farnell, Designing Sound, Chapter 14 pages 219-234
  2. Browse through the Ardour2 manual, available at http://en.flossmanuals.net/ardour/. Begin with the "STARTING SESSIONS" tabs on the left and continuing with the EDITING SESSIONS, MIXING SESSIONS, EXPORTING SESSIONS and SAVING SESSIONS tab links.
  3. [Additionally, two youtube Ardour video tutorials that you may or may not find useful, given the abysmal musical quality in these tutorials, can be found at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43ES7p4ejX0&NR=1 and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_pF-CfWgMw0&feature=channel ]
Labs and individual studio work:
  1. Practice using Audacity and/or ardour2 to make some simple mixes
  2. Continue working on your Pd patches. If you have the time and interest, try combining jack clients in Pd audio streams
  3. Discuss your preliminary semester project ideas during your lab from aesthetic, technical and (given the limited amount of time you have to complete this project) practical considerations.
Assignment for Test 2, due week 13 November 26 :
For your second graded evaluation, prepare a short (10-20 second) soundfile mix, using soundfiles you have created in the ECMC studio. You can use Audacity, or ardour2, or mixb (discussed during week 12), or any other mixing application on any platform (Logic, ProTools, etc). Save and bring your Audacity, ardour, Logic or whatever application you used "project" file that you have used to create your mix, rather than simply a mix output soundfile, so we can see exactly what you have done.
Assignment for next week :
Begin detailed planning of your semester compositional project. You can incorporate any of the system resources covered this term within this project. Take a portion of your lab times throughout the rest of the semester to discuss your ideas, questions and problems. We will discuss your project ideas during your individual appointment next week. Begin working on your project now, and come to next week's appointment prepared with specific, concrete musical ideas and some material that you intend to incorporate within this piece.

Week 11 Nov. 10, 12 :

Principal topics: (1) spatial ambience, sound localization, multichannel audio and "surround sound" systems (2) ambisonic sound processing and encoding with vspace; (3) decoding and playing B format soundfiles in stereo, quad and 8 channels; (4) a portion of the class time will be devoted to individual appointments to discuss your ideas for your semester project, and to look at your Pd patches.

Reading assignment:
  1. ECMC Users' Guide : Sections 7.1 through 7.7 (pages VII:1 through VII:25)
  2. the man page for vspacetp
Labs and individual studio work
  • Create some B format soundfiles with vspace
  • play these encoded soundfiles with play -b 2, play -b 4 (or else with playbs and playbq) and with play -8
  • practice decoding these B format soundfiles with decb2, decb4 and decb8, and playing the resulting WAVE soundfiles
  • continue work on your semester project and on your examples for Test 2
Assignment for Test 2, due week 13, November 24 :
For your second graded evaluation, create at least one B format soundfile with vspace

Week 12, Nov. 18, 20 :

Principal topics: (1) mixing B format soundfiles (mixbsc and mixb); (2) overview of ambisonic resources in Csound and Pd; (3) Unix command history and job control; (4) organizing your soundfiles into directories; (5) running batch jobs (5) a portion of class time will be devoted to individual appointments to assess your preparation for next week's graded evaluation
Reading assignment:
ECMC Users' Guide :
  • Section 7.8 (pages VII:25 through VII:28)
  • Section 2.9 (Some additional Unix resources) (pages II:16 through II:22, the end of Section 2)
Individual studio work:
  1. Try mixing two or more B format soundfiles with mixb.
  2. Complete your preparations for next week's test, including at least one ambisonic soundfile created with vspace.

Week 13, Nov. 24 : TEST 2

Regular class and labs will not meet. Class time will be devoted to individual appointments for graded evaluations of the following work:

  1. Pd : Your best Pd patch (or your best two patches)
  2. One sound processing example that employs either jack-rack, FreqTweak or JAMin, or else a combination of these jack clients
  3. One short mix created with Audacity, or with Ardour2, or with mixb
  4. One vspace example
In addition to this prepared portion of your evaluation, I will ask you to make a few (temporary) edits (changes) to your prepared examples, such as adding one or more soundfiles to your mix example, or changing the room size or reverberant qualities of your ambisonic example, or altering the EQ curve of a JAMin example. We also will discuss briefly your progress on your semester project.

Individual studio work : Continue working on your semester project.
Although regular labs will not meet, contact your lab instructor if you would like to schedule time this week for an extra help session.


Week 14, Dec. 2, 4 :

Principal topics: (1) high quality resampling, word length conversion and dithering; the ecmcresample and audiomove resampling programs; (2) remote logins and file transfers between ECMC Linux, Mac and Windows computers; (3) compressing files: lossy and lossless audio codecs; mp3, ogg and flac
A portion of class time will be devoted to individual appointments to discuss your progress on your semester project.
Reading assignment:
  • ECMC Users' Guide : sections 6.3 and 6.4 (remote logins and Copying files), pages VI:5 through VI:9
  • Section 6.5 (Compressing files) (pages VI:8 thought VI:14)
  • Practice compressing and uncompressing both soundfiles and ascii or data files using the tar archiving program and/or gzip, bzip2 or zip.
    Labs and individual studio work:
    1. Try out the ecmcresample script and/or the audiomove application to perform high quality resampling, dithering and bit depth conversion.
    2. Practice logging on remotely between madking, gesualdo and various other ECMC systems, copying files back and forth between these two systems and running commands remotely.
    3. Continue working on your semester projects (of course!)

    Week 15, Dec. 9, 11 :

    Class will meet only for about 30 minutes to discuss preparations for the class concert. Most of the class time will be devoted to individual appointments to discuss your semester projects. Regular labs will not meet, but you can schedule an appointment with your lab instructor to obtain help with your semester project. Final projects must be completed by Sunday December 14 at noon so that they can be copied to one of the ECMC laptops for realization or playback on the concert.

    The concert of works produced in the studios this term will be presented on Monday, December 15 in room 120.
    Projects will be graded within a few days of their presentation on the class concert, and I will email you a graded critique of your work.

    Before leaving:

    • Back up all important soundfiles you may wish to use in the future onto a data cd or dvd.
    • Delete most of your soundfiles, including your final mix, unless you will be continuing to work with some large soundfiles during the semester break or at the very beginning of next semester. If you will be using these soundfiles for further work during the next few weeks, send me an e-mail to let me know what you will be doing. Otherwise ...
    • You should leave no more than 3 GB on the snd disk of madking and also delete any files you have created on gesualdo. If you leave more than 3 GB on the sound disk of any ECMC system, and if disk space is needed during the semester break (which is likely), we will not hesitate to delete many of your soundfiles.
      The command du -sh /snd/UID or (for more information) du -h /snd/UID (where UID is your login name) will tell you how much space you are using on the madking sound disk.
      You should clean up and slim down your Unix directories as well.